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S&P 500 spirals as interest rates and economic headwinds rattle investors

EditorPollock Mondal
Published 09/28/2023, 08:22 AM
© Pavlo Gonchar / SOPA Images/Sipa via Reuters Connect

The S&P 500 has seen a downturn in recent days, shedding about 3% since the Federal Reserve indicated that interest rates are likely to remain elevated for longer than initially anticipated. The benchmark index is currently hovering just above JPMorgan's year-end target of 4,200, with the firm's chief market strategist, Marko Kolanovic, expressing skepticism about a potential recovery.

Kolanovic detailed his concerns in a note to clients on Wednesday, highlighting an array of challenges that have dented investor sentiment in recent trading sessions. He pointed out that oil prices have hit their 2023 highs, the Federal Reserve's interest rate projections show prolonged high rates, China's economy hasn't bounced back from the pandemic as expected, and the seemingly robust American consumer might be nearing a cash shortage.

According to Kolanovic, the confluence of these factors has created an environment reminiscent of 2008. While he clarified that the current situation is not identical to that of 2007-2008, he noted enough parallels to warrant caution. These include different exposures of economic segments to interest rate hikes, varying levels of leverage across market segments, the magnitude of rate increases, and geopolitical and energy considerations.

JPMorgan maintains that the "core risk" for markets and the economy remains an interest rate shock. The lagging effects of monetary policy have taken longer to manifest due to the unique positioning of the economy before the Fed's first interest rate hike. A record amount of stimulus was injected into the economy, providing consumers with ample cash. Borrowing costs were also historically low at the onset of the pandemic, enabling homeowners to refinance and avoid high mortgages. Corporates enjoyed low-interest loans as well.

However, Kolanovic warns that these loans will eventually expire and interest rates won't be as favorable when companies renegotiate. He also highlighted that there are clear differences from 2008 when a significantly higher percentage of mortgages had to be refinanced and subprime sector leverage was much higher. Despite these differences, Kolanovic noted that the impact on consumers is negative, and this trend is unlikely to reverse unless interest rates are cut.

JPMorgan's research shows that delinquencies in consumer loans have reached their highest levels since the Great Financial Crisis. The first signs of a tightening monetary policy impacting the economy emerged with the regional banking crisis. A surge in stocks driven by upbeat prospects around artificial intelligence earlier this year won't be replicated, according to Kolanovic. He argued that while some wealth effect from high stock market valuations could seep into the economy via broad consumer sentiment, it could disappear just as quickly.

This article was generated with the support of AI and reviewed by an editor. For more information see our T&C.

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