Breaking News
0
Ad-Free Version. Upgrade your Investing.com experience. Save up to 40% More details

Desperate for fuel, Venezuelans steal PDVSA crude and make their own gasoline

CommoditiesNov 19, 2020 07:10AM ET
Saved. See Saved Items.
This article has already been saved in your Saved Items
 
2/2 © Reuters. FILE PHOTO: A man walks past a closed gas station of the state oil company PDVSA in San Cristobal 2/2

By Mariela Nava and Luc Cohen

MARACAIBO, Venezuela (Reuters) - Venezuelans, desperate for fuel after months of shortages, have begun stealing crude from idled fields owned by state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela [PDVSA.UL] and distilling homemade gasoline, according to two PDVSA workers and a half dozen people familiar with the practice.

The amount of crude stolen is a tiny fraction of Venezuela's output. But the activity is testament to the crises at PDVSA, which can no longer supply the country's population with fuel.

Venezuela's once-formidable 1.3 million barrels per day (bpd) refining network has collapsed, oil and refining installations have little security or maintenance, and the firm is unable to retain qualified workers as salary values erode.

The company has hit a new low this year. Under pressure from U.S. sanctions - part of Washington's effort to oust President Nicolas Maduro - Venezuela's crude output fell to just 397,000 bpd in September, down from 1.2 million bpd before the sanctions were imposed in January 2019 and the lowest level since the 1930s.

The sanctions have targeted gasoline imports, forcing Venezuelans to wait in snaking lines outside gas stations. Many citizens regard that as a bitter indignity in an OPEC producer, which has, by some measures, the world's largest crude reserves.

The supply chain for the so-called "artisanal gasoline" begins at oil fields such as La Concepcion in the western state of Zulia, which produced more than 12,000 bpd of high-value light crude 15 years ago.

The field has been idled for two years as PDVSA, once one of the top 10 oil companies in the world by crude output and a major exporter, has collapsed into a shell of its former self.

DEMANDING ACTIVITIES

Small tubes now jut out of holes drilled into pipelines that were built to carry La Concepcion's crude to storage tanks and export facilities. The tubes bring the oil to rudimentary refineries in backyards of a nearby town, according to Danny, a PDVSA worker who asked to be identified by his first name.

PDVSA employees, earning just a few U.S. dollars per month, accept small bribes to turn a blind eye to the theft, Danny said. Security forces barely bother to guard the dormant facilities, a pattern replicated across Venezuela, where equipment theft from oil fields has become common during the country's six-year economic collapse.

"It is obvious that people are stealing the oil, which is the only source of wealth we have," Danny said.

PDVSA did not respond to a request for comment. A former company executive estimated that less than 1,000 bpd of crude is stolen, less than 1% of total output.

PDVSA has spent months trying to fix refineries that have fallen into disrepair due to a lack of funding for maintenance and to buy spare parts. The efforts and have been plagued by oil spills, gas leaks, and fires that have injured workers.

The company managed to restart gasoline output at its 310,000 bpd Cardon and 146,000 bpd El Palito refineries in June and July, respectively, but both have suffered multiple unplanned outages in the months since, resulting in intermittent fuel output.

"We cannot perform such demanding activities if we're hungry," said Freddy Camacho, an engineer who has worked on the effort to restart the Cardon refinery, and repairs refrigerators for extra cash.

Maduro blames sanctions for the gasoline shortages, but says Venezuela must boost fuel production.

THE SKINNY

Until this year, Venezuelans had no need to steal crude to make their own fuel.

Similar activities have long been common in Nigeria, where dozens of illegal refineries process crude stolen from pipelines. In other Latin American oil producers, such as Mexico and Brazil, it is common for criminal gangs to steal fuel from pipelines coming out of refineries, rather than take the raw material.

In Venezuela, abundant fuel had for decades been essentially free thanks to subsidies. But that situation was a distant memory by early August, when Jaime - a dairy farmer in Zulia - needed to send cheese to market in state capital Maracaibo, but could not find any gas to drive there.

A neighbor suggested he call a man named "El Flaco" - Spanish for "The Skinny Guy" - in the nearby town of La Concepcion. Jaime did not ask 'El Flaco' where the gasoline came from, but he was aware of the growing crude theft and makeshift refining taking place in Zulia.

"They get it out of oil wells here in La Concepcion. They boil it and pass it through copper tubes, and then sell you the liquid that drips out," Jaime told Reuters on the condition his last name not be published.

Danny, as well as another PDVSA worker and several people whose relatives are engaged in the activity, described the process to Reuters.

At the field, thieves puncture pipelines, and, holding a blowtorch below the pipe, heat up the crude so it flows into smaller tubes they insert into the punctured hole.

Videos of the clandestine refineries have circulated on social media https://twitter.com/Duglenis/status/1308787782035410952. In one, a small fire is seen burning under two black canisters held in a rusted barrel, with a series of small tubes transporting clear liquid into buckets. A larger tube, buried underground, transports that liquid into white gas cans.

Jorge Leon, an engineer specializing in industrial security for the oil industry, said the fluid the makeshift refiners were extracting was chemically volatile and lacked the additives normally added to gasoline to ensure safety for car engines.

"Not only can it damage the engine, but it could cause explosions," Leon said.

The artisanal gasoline Jaime bought from El Flaco did not turn out to be a viable solution.

"The truck drove fine for a couple days, but three days after, the engine started to sputter," Jaime said. "Now it won't turn on."

Desperate for fuel, Venezuelans steal PDVSA crude and make their own gasoline
 

Related Articles

Oil prices rise on China energy demand concerns
Oil prices rise on China energy demand concerns By Reuters - Oct 19, 2021 7

By Bozorgmehr Sharafedin LONDON (Reuters) -Oil prices rose on Tuesday as a supply crunch in natural gas, electricity and coal continued across the globe while falling temperatures...

China coal hits record high amid tight supplies
China coal hits record high amid tight supplies By Reuters - Oct 19, 2021

By Shivani Singh BEIJING (Reuters) - China coal prices hit a record high on Tuesday buoyed by a widening power crunch and cold weather despite Beijing's efforts to bolster supply....

Add a Comment

Comment Guidelines

We encourage you to use comments to engage with other users, share your perspective and ask questions of authors and each other. However, in order to maintain the high level of discourse we’ve all come to value and expect, please keep the following criteria in mind:  

  •            Enrich the conversation, don’t trash it.

  •           Stay focused and on track. Only post material that’s relevant to the topic being discussed. 

  •           Be respectful. Even negative opinions can be framed positively and diplomatically. Avoid profanity, slander or personal attacks directed at an author or another user. Racism, sexism and other forms of discrimination will not be tolerated.

  • Use standard writing style. Include punctuation and upper and lower cases. Comments that are written in all caps and contain excessive use of symbols will be removed.
  • NOTE: Spam and/or promotional messages and comments containing links will be removed. Phone numbers, email addresses, links to personal or business websites, Skype/Telegram/WhatsApp etc. addresses (including links to groups) will also be removed; self-promotional material or business-related solicitations or PR (ie, contact me for signals/advice etc.), and/or any other comment that contains personal contact specifcs or advertising will be removed as well. In addition, any of the above-mentioned violations may result in suspension of your account.
  • Doxxing. We do not allow any sharing of private or personal contact or other information about any individual or organization. This will result in immediate suspension of the commentor and his or her account.
  • Don’t monopolize the conversation. We appreciate passion and conviction, but we also strongly believe in giving everyone a chance to air their point of view. Therefore, in addition to civil interaction, we expect commenters to offer their opinions succinctly and thoughtfully, but not so repeatedly that others are annoyed or offended. If we receive complaints about individuals who take over a thread or forum, we reserve the right to ban them from the site, without recourse.
  • Only English comments will be allowed.

Perpetrators of spam or abuse will be deleted from the site and prohibited from future registration at Investing.com’s discretion.

Write your thoughts here
 
Are you sure you want to delete this chart?
 
Post
Post also to:
 
Replace the attached chart with a new chart ?
1000
Your ability to comment is currently suspended due to negative user reports. Your status will be reviewed by our moderators.
Please wait a minute before you try to comment again.
Thanks for your comment. Please note that all comments are pending until approved by our moderators. It may therefore take some time before it appears on our website.
Comments (1)
Ignacio Gonzalez
Ignacio Gonzalez Nov 19, 2020 7:15AM ET
Saved. See Saved Items.
This comment has already been saved in your Saved Items
Maduro is not a legit president, is a dictator
 
Are you sure you want to delete this chart?
 
Post
 
Replace the attached chart with a new chart ?
1000
Your ability to comment is currently suspended due to negative user reports. Your status will be reviewed by our moderators.
Please wait a minute before you try to comment again.
Add Chart to Comment
Confirm Block

Are you sure you want to block %USER_NAME%?

By doing so, you and %USER_NAME% will not be able to see any of each other's Investing.com's posts.

%USER_NAME% was successfully added to your Block List

Since you’ve just unblocked this person, you must wait 48 hours before renewing the block.

Report this comment

I feel that this comment is:

Comment flagged

Thank You!

Your report has been sent to our moderators for review
Disclaimer: Fusion Media would like to remind you that the data contained in this website is not necessarily real-time nor accurate. All CFDs (stocks, indexes, futures) and Forex prices are not provided by exchanges but rather by market makers, and so prices may not be accurate and may differ from the actual market price, meaning prices are indicative and not appropriate for trading purposes. Therefore Fusion Media doesn`t bear any responsibility for any trading losses you might incur as a result of using this data.

Fusion Media or anyone involved with Fusion Media will not accept any liability for loss or damage as a result of reliance on the information including data, quotes, charts and buy/sell signals contained within this website. Please be fully informed regarding the risks and costs associated with trading the financial markets, it is one of the riskiest investment forms possible.
Continue with Google
or
Sign up with Email